Астела мани игра с выводом денег отзывы
Moreover, as a group led by Richard Burkhauser of Cornell University recently showed, the rise in income inequality in America since the early 1990s has been smaller and has grown астела мани игра с выводом денег отзывы slowly than in the two decades before. The American ideal of equality, as discussed above, does not demand equal wealth or income.
And the economic facts do not support the notion that unequal wealth causes hardship for the poor. The implicit астела мани игра с выводом денег отзывы behind the case for the injustice of income inequality is that the wealthy are the reason why the poor are poor, or at least why they cannot escape their poverty.
If this claim were true, it would be much easier to connect income inequality with injustice, and so to justify a redistributionist agenda.
Yet this assumption rests on another economic premise that itself is highly dubious: the idea that income is a zero-sum game. Much of the moral debate about income inequality seems to rest on this zero-sum theory.
As Kevin Drum of Mother Jones magazine put it last year, "This income shift is real. The super rich have a much bigger piece of the pie than they used to, and that means a smaller piece of the pie for all the rest of us.
Through ingenuity and higher productivity, our country generates new income. The fact that some people make billions of астела мани игра с выводом денег отзывы does not necessarily decrease income for the average worker.
Indeed, research shows that this is just what has happened in America over the past several decades. In 2009, the Economic Mobility Project sponsored by the Pew Charitable Trust released a report titled Ups and Downs: Does the American Economy Still Promote Upward Mobility.
Moreover, among Americans who suffered a significant income drop over ten years, the share of those recovering from such an experience between 1994 and 2004 was actually slightly higher than the share of those recovering from a астела мани игра с выводом денег отзывы drop in the two previous decades.
Claims that income volatility has measurably increased for the average family are mistaken. Income gains over time outnumber income losses, and this is as true today as it was in the past. Furthermore, recovery from income losses is comparable to that of past periods.
Май фарм игра с выводом денег, what stands out is how астела мани игра с выводом денег отзывы changes have been over the past forty years.
These findings undercut the primary argument for treating income inequality as evidence of injustice. It is simply not true that the increased earnings of high-income workers generally cause some people to be poor or prevent them from improving their economic status.
In fact, successful businessmen and others in top income brackets play a significant role in enlarging the economic pie. When high-income earners find ways to increase productivity and create income, they are rewarded for their efforts. They also help to generate more jobs and lower prices - often by re-investing the same financial rewards that their critics begrudge them - thus benefiting Americans at all income levels.
In short, the scope of inequality in America is routinely and grossly exaggerated. More important, the primary argument for the injustice of income inequality fails because the success астела мани игра с выводом денег отзывы the rich does not harm the poor.
Income inequality as such is not behind the problem of poverty. The rich, in other words, are not the reason приложения для онлайн рулетки the poor are poor. To be sure, justice requires that the rich put their fair share into the public coffers.
When it comes to tax rates, there is no a priori way to determine what is fair or just. Societies need to deliberate about such questions in the астела мани игра с выводом денег отзывы of their own circumstances and priorities - and thinking about economic justice in terms of income inequality is not conducive to such deliberation.
Excessive levels of taxation not only punish the success or good fortune of high earners, but also undermine the common good by hindering economic growth, which hits the poor harder than any other group. Consider that, to grow the economy and create jobs - including better jobs for the poor - business owners and investors must feel relatively confident that they will reap the fruits of their endeavors.
Punitive levels of taxation undermine that confidence and discourage innovation and investment. In one recent study published by the National Детские игры зарабатывать деньги of Программа деньги в игру Research, researchers concluded that increasing marginal tax rates would substantially reduce investment by entrepreneurs.
Yet those who call for higher taxes астела мани игра с выводом денег отзывы top earners and corporations sometimes seem to assume that income can be redistributed without these negative effects. Where governments tried to enforce strict equality in the past, as in socialist and communist regimes throughout the 20th century, power became more concentrated in the hands of a few (government officials) while material equality and prosperity among the general population remained elusive.
In addition to being widely unpopular, such interventions would also be exceedingly inefficient, because different people value different things (money, land, physical health, travel, consumer goods, comfort, and so forth) in different ways. And government necessarily lacks the ability to know the relative degrees to which астела мани игра с выводом денег отзывы value these goods. Consider the example of a government-run health-insurance program астела мани игра с выводом денег отзывы forces private options out of the market and dictates which medical procedures are and are not covered.]