Проверенные игры с выводом реальных денег
Thus it does not take into account the Earned Income Tax Credit, food stamps, the school-lunch program, public housing, Medicare, and Medicaid. It also excludes the equalizing effects of taxes on income.
A study by the Congressional Budget Office compared the share of total income in America held by households in different income groups before and after paying taxes from 1979 to 2007. While the top quintile contains 24.
One reason is that the quintiles are based on a count of family households rather than of individuals. As a result, each household in the top income quintile tends to contain more people than each household in the bottom quintile. Moreover, as a group led by Richard Burkhauser of Cornell University recently showed, the rise in income inequality in America since the early 1990s has been smaller and has grown more slowly than in the two decades before. The Проверенные игры с выводом реальных денег ideal of equality, as discussed above, does not demand equal wealth or income.
And the economic facts do not support the notion that unequal wealth causes hardship for the poor. The implicit assumption behind the case for the injustice of income inequality is that the проверенные игры с выводом реальных денег are the reason why the poor are poor, or at least why they cannot игра по заработку денег на птицах their poverty.
If this claim were true, it would be much easier to connect income inequality with injustice, and so to justify a redistributionist agenda. Yet как играя в игры можно заработать денег assumption rests on another economic premise that itself is highly dubious: the idea that income is a zero-sum game.
Much of the moral debate about income inequality seems to rest on this zero-sum theory. As Kevin Drum of Mother Jones magazine put it last year, "This income shift is real. The super rich have a much bigger piece of the pie than they used to, and that means a smaller piece of the pie for all the rest of us. Through ingenuity and higher productivity, our country generates new income. The fact that some people make проверенные игры с выводом реальных денег of dollars does not necessarily decrease проверенные игры с выводом реальных денег for the average worker.
Indeed, research shows that this is just what has happened in America over the past several decades. In 2009, the Economic Mobility Project вывод денег онлайн игры by the Pew Charitable Trust released a report titled Ups and Downs: Does the American Economy Still Promote Upward Mobility.
Moreover, among Americans who suffered a significant income drop over ten years, the share of those recovering from such an experience between 1994 and 2004 was actually slightly higher than the share of those recovering from a similar drop in the two previous decades. Claims that income volatility has measurably проверенные игры с выводом реальных денег for the average family are mistaken.
Income gains over time outnumber income losses, and this is as true today as it was in the past. Furthermore, recovery from income losses is comparable to that of past periods. Overall, what stands out is how minimal changes have been over the past forty years. These findings undercut the primary argument for treating income inequality as evidence of injustice.
It is simply not true that the increased earnings of high-income workers generally cause some people to be poor or prevent them from improving their проверенные игры с выводом реальных денег status. In fact, successful businessmen and others in top income brackets play a significant role in enlarging the economic pie. When high-income earners проверенные игры с выводом реальных денег ways to increase productivity and create income, they are rewarded for their efforts.
They also help to generate more jobs and lower prices - often by re-investing the same financial rewards that their critics begrudge them - thus benefiting Americans at all income levels. In short, the scope of inequality in America is routinely and grossly exaggerated. More important, the проверенные игры с выводом реальных денег argument for the injustice of income inequality fails because the success of the rich does not harm the poor. Income inequality as such is not behind the problem of poverty.
The rich, in other words, are not the reason why the poor are poor. To be sure, justice requires that the rich put their fair share into the public coffers. When it comes to tax rates, there is no a priori way to determine what is fair or just.]